Polish-Language Clandestine Press Published under the Patronage of Kanstancin Kalinoŭski

This article focuses on illegal Polish-language newspapers that were published with the approval and, it would appear, under the patronage of Kanstancin Kalinoŭski. These publications were put out by the Red camp: “The Flag of Freedom” (Chorągiew Swobody) and “The Voice of Litva” (Głos Litwy). This article aims to analyse the content of these newspapers, which are less controversial than Kalinoŭski’s own newspapers that were guided towards the peasantry. They do not raise the issue of a division between Lithuania, Belarus and Kingdom of Poland, but instead make use of language and ideas that characterise the provinces as part of a great whole. They also do not contain any  contentious  social  slogans  that  emanated out  of  the  periodical  “Mužyckaja Praŭda”. This all demonstrates that Kalinoŭski was not only a Romantic hero, but also a pragmatic politician. The slogan “Everyone is Equal” from the democratic Reds was common for all three newspapers.